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      澳门会手机app下载地址ByLaiYouwei,LiGuangqianShiGuang,ResearchTeamon"DevelopmentCharacteristics,ProblemsandCountermeasuresofChinasE-commerceServiceIndustry",GeneralOfficeofDRCResearchReport,(Total4580)I.FastGrowingTransactionVolumeofChinasE-commerceOverrecentyears,thetransactionvolumeofChinase-commercesawcontinuousgrowth,ologyofChina,thetransactionvolumeofChinase-commercereachedapproximatelyRMB10trillionyuanin2013,up25%,thesizeofChinaanewsourceforChina,withtheincreasingacceptanceofe-commerceandonlineshoppingbycorporateusersandconsumers,traditionalcompaniesaremarchingintothee-commerceindustrywithagrowingnumberofonlinesalesactivities,,%ofChinasonlineconsumptionrepresentedaswitchfromoffline,whiletheremaining39%,ChinasonlineshoppinggeneratedanaddedconsumptionvolumeworthRMB720billionyuanin2013,aclearmanifestatio,onlineshoppersinChinacontinuetogrowrapidly,,,thatnumberhadrisento302million,%,Chinase-commerceindustryisactivelyinvolvedinpursuingtechnologicalinnovationaswellasinnovationinbusinessmodel,,smobilee-commercemarketwillexceedRMB300billionyuan,withanaverageyearlygrowthof70%.Fourth,thedevelopmentenvironmentforChina,Chinase-commercehasenjoyedabetterdevelopmentenvironmentwiththeperfectionofrelevantlawsandregulationsaswellastheimprovedinfrastructureandtechnicalstandards,andwillundoubtedlyembraceanevenbrighterfuturewiththeestablishmentofasoundstatesupervisionsystem,strongerpolicysupport,furtherimprovedinfrastructure,edividedintothreetypes,namely,transactionalservices,supportingservices,AlibabaGroup,,,,,,,,,,,logisticsanddelivery,anddataoperation,,e-commerceoperationandonlinemodeling,,e-commerceservicesareexpandingthemselves,,Chinase-commerceserviceprovidershaveenormouspotentialsintodaysinformation-based,market-oriented,highlyconnected,,,ChinahasseenfasterintegrationoftheBusinesstoBusiness(B2B)modelandtheBusinesstoCustomer(B2C)modelaswellasth(C2C)commercestilldominatestheonlineretailmarket,occupyingover70%ofmarketshares,its,Chinase-commercetransaction,,andotherlarge-scalecomprehensivee-commercecom,,,,andotherB2Ccompaniesaretransformingfromstorestoplatformsbyallowingtcentyears.(1)slargestonlineandmobilee-commercecompany,AlibabaGroupoperatese-co,AlibabaGroupprovidesthreetypesofplatformservices,namely,B2B,C2C,,anaffiliateofAlibabaGroupandoneofChinasmostpopularC2Cplatform,hadapproximately500mil,,,eretailbusinesscommunitythatcoversC2C,groupbuying,distribution,auction,,sleadingB2Conlineshoppingwebsite,,,AlibabaGroup,,,,,,China,rsforonlinemarketing,transactioncommissions,srevenueforthefiscalyear2010,2011,2012,,,,snetlossforfiscalyear2010wasRMB503millionyuanandthenetprofitforthefiscalyear2011,2012,,,(2),,communicationsproducts,consumerelectronics,,italsoprovidesaseriesofvalue-addservicesforthethird-partyvendorssuchasonlinesalesplatformsandlogistics,,,,itsplatformturnoverexceededRMB100billionyuan.(3)Thethird-partye-commerceplatformsinGuangdongProvince,ZhejiangProvince,partye-commerceplatformsinGuangdongProvince,ZhejiangProvince,FujianProvinceandotherlocalareas,,e-commerceplatformswithanannualturnoverofoverRMB10billionyuan,,mainlycomefromthesteelindustry,thepetrochemicalindustry,thegrainindustry,andtheelectronicsindustry,,anumberofprofessionale-commerceplatformsareplayingan,,,,,,hoe-makingclusterinJinjiangCityandPutianCityandtheclothingandtextileclusterinQuanzhouCity....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.,2016Aftermorethan30yearsofdeepenedreformandfurtheropening-up,C,wefirmlygraspthestrategicopportunityofeconomicglobalization,deepencooperationwiththeinternationalcommunity,andactivelyparticipateininternationaleconomicgovernancesystemtojointlycopewithchallenges,promoterecoveryofworldeconomy,ethan30yearsofreformandopening-up,Chinahasachievedahistoricalleapinitseconomicdevelopment,risingfromacountrywithtraderankingthe32ndintheworlddependingonexportingprimaryproducts,andbecomingtheworld’,Chinaistheworld’ssecondlargesteconomy,thebiggestexporterofgoodstradeandthelargesttradenation,oneoftheworld’’’se,wherethemajorproblemisthecontradictionbetweenpeople’,weupholdthedirectionofreformtowardthesocialistmarketeconomy,continuetodeepenreformandconstantlyemancipatethemind,releaseanddevelopproductiveforces,,weeffectivelystimulatedtheenthusiasmofthelaborforce,greatlystimulatedthedynamismofeconomicdevelopment,fullyreleasedthepotentialofeconomicdevelopment,andachievedth’,nomicglobalization,andbasedonChina’scomparativeadvantages,weformulatetheopening-upstrategywhichissuitableforChina’,wemakefulluseofthe“twomarketsandtworesources”,,establishesnewsystemsforanopeneconomy,andcreatesnewadvantages,chCenteroftheStateCouncil,China’%%,China’scontributiontoworldeconomicgrowthfurtherrisestomorethanaquarter,acturedgoods,effectivelycurbingglobalinflation,whichisconducivetothestabilityandgrowthoftheglobaleconomy,andalsogreatlyenhancestheconsumers’’simportsofgoodsandservicesreachmorethan$2trillionayear,whichbecomesthehugemarketforgoodsandservicesaroundtheworld,,Chinahasrankedthetopment,providingtheinvestorsaroundtheworldwiththeopportunitytoshareChina’’srapidrisetobecometheworld’sthirdlargestforeigninvestorhas’soverseasinvestmentalso,China’sinvestmentindevelopingcountriesbringsthemappliedtechnology,whichisofspecialsignificanceforthosecountriesinpromotingindustrialization,acceleratingtechnologicalprogress,,moreandmorecountriesregarditasoneoftheimportantcontentsinde,ChinaadheredtothepositionthatChinesecurrencyRMBwouldnotdevalue,,Chinaworkedcloselywiththeinternationalcommunity,coordinatedpolicies,,theChinesegovernmenttooktheinitiativetoadjustmacroeconomicpolicy,workedonexpandingdomesticdemandandadjustingeconomicstructure,asaresultofwhichChinaachievedstableeconomicgrowth,,Chinaactivelyparticipatedininternationalcooperationtocopewiththeglobalfinancialcrisis,whichhasmadeitsowneffortstostabilizeglobalfinancialmarkets,conomicgovernancesystemiscomposedofaseriesofrulesforinternatio,BrettonWo,andguaranteeforeconomicglobalization,whichhelpspromoteinternationaltradeandinvestment,,,itisimportanttoimprovetherepresentativenessoftheglobaleconomicgovernancesystem,,emergingeconomiesandalargenumberofdevelopingcountriesdeveloprapidly,,itisimportanttoenhancetherepresentativenessanddiscoursepowerofdevelopingcountriesinthecurrentglobaleconomicgovernancesystem,and,itisimportanttopromotefairerandproperinternationalrules,tryingtomakeamorebalancedglobaleconomicgovernancesystemreflectthewishesandinterestsofdifferentcountries,tosafeguardtheinterestsofdevelopingcountries,andtrulyrealizetheequalityofrights,opportunity,,itisimportanttoadapttothenewdemandofinternationaleconomicandfinancialdevelopment,urtherdeepens,alotofnewareassuchasglobalproductionvaluechain,cross-borderinvestment,e-commerce,networkinformationsecurit,thereisalsoaneedtoenhancetheathencooperationandimproveglobalgovernancesystem....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

      澳门会手机app下载地址,,acontinentofhopeandfullofdevelopmentopportunities,nthetwosides,China-Africaindustrialcapacitycooperationenjoysbroadprospects,dustrialcapacitycooperation,itisnecessarytoconsolidatetheeffortsofallplayers,adoptcomprehensivepolicies,andtaketargetedmeasurestoreducerisks,createafavorableclimateofopinion,:nforbuildingaChina-AfricacommunitywithasharedfutureBuildingacommunitywithsharedfutureformankindandleadingthereformoftheglobalgovernancesystemareinherentrequirementsforChinatocreatewithsharedfutureformankind,aChina-Africacommunitywithasharedfuturew,Africastandsoutwithitsrichresourceendowmentanddevelopmentpotentials,leadingtoevermorefiercecompetitionsamongtheworld’frica,theUnitedStatesisgivingevenmoreimportancetoAfrica,andAsiancountriessuchasJapan,theRepublicofKorea,andIndiaa,asalatebeginnerinindustrialization,Africasuffersfromunderdevelopedinfrastructureandlackoftalentscapital,,developmentofenergyandresources,andindustrialdevelopment,China-Africaindustrialcapacitycooperationmainlytakestheformofdirectinvestment,engineeringconstructioncontracting,equipmenttrading,andtechnicalcoopera,China-Africain’slargesttradingpartnerforei,thecontractualvalueofcontractedprojectsnewlysignedbyChineseenterprisesinAfricaamountedtoUSD82billion,up8%’opmentinAfricaandplayedanimportantroleinupgradingsectorssuchasroads,railways,airports,electricity,urcesandenergyinAfricaandcontributedtothecontinent’sindustrializationbyaddingvaluetoitsresourcesandenergy,expandingitsexports,andhelpingaddressthe“foreignexchangegap”.Throughmanufacturinginvestmentandequipmentexports,ChineseenterpriseshaveintroducedtoAfricaapplicabletechnologies,non-agriculturalemploymentopportunities,,China-Africaindustrialcapacitycooper,China’sdevelopmentmodelisbecomingincreasinglypopularinmostAfricancountrieswhicharelookingtoChinaonhowtodeveloptheireconomy,creatingauniqu,AfricamaybecomeanewfreChineseenter,China-AfricaindustrialcapacitycooperationwillcontributetoandlayasortasChinamovesupglobalvaluechainsFromthatamongproductstothatamongcompanies,internationaleconomiccompetitionhasevolvedtotoday’,Chinahasfirmlyseizedthestrategicopportunitiesofeconomicglobalization,fullyutilizeditslow-costlaboradvantage,andsuccessfullytransformedfromamanufactureroflabor-in’smostimportantmanufacturerandexporteroflabor-intensivefinishedproducts,Chinahasenteredacriticalstageoftransformingitscomparaionalmarket,whilelabor-int’sindndustriallfruitsinthetransferoflabor-intensiveindustries,developmentofresourcesandenergy,investmentinprocessing,andomoveupglobalvaluechains,China-Africaindustrialcapacitycooperationwillprovidestro’sresourcesecurityBecauseofitsnationalconditions,it’simper’,China’spercapitaconsumptionofresourcesandenergywillcontinuetoincrease,,Africahas91%oftheworld’schromitereserves,88%ofitsplatinumgroupmetals,83%ofitsmanganeseore,60%ofitsdiamond,50%ofitsgold,49%ofitsphosphate,41%ofitscobalt,and32%ofitsbauxite[].Moreover,Africahassomeoftheworld’slargestreservesofcopper,nickel,lead,andzincandanabundantsupplyofimportantresourcesinoil,coal,anduranium,dat75milliontons,or15%oftheworld’%oftheworld’scobaltreserves()and80%oftheworld’scoltanreserves(30milliontons)[].Infact,mostAfricanmineraldepositsareofhighqualityanddistributedclosetogether,’sscarceeffortsformineralexplorationingeneral,itisonlypossiblethatmoreresourcesan,Africaalsohas60%oftheworld’suncultivatedarableland,suitableclimaticconditions,,Chineseenterpriseshavetofacethefactthathigh-qualityresources(highgrade,easymining,soundinfrastructure,andlowrisk),Chinahasmadeuseofitscollectivestrengthsanddevelopedsomenewindustrialcapacitycooperationmodelsthatintegrateresourcedevelopment,infrastructureconstruction,[],botheffectiveincreatingamutuallybeneficialrelorsafeguardingChina’sresourcesecurity....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ByGeYanfeng,,2016Sincethenewhealthcarereform,Chinahascarriedoutaseriesofreformsbasedontheprincipleofcoordinatedreformofmedicalservices,,strengthenedpharmaceuticalevaluation,approvalandqualitycontrol,andactivelystudiedhowtoregulatemedicinedistributionandproperuse,,nonetheless,someproblemsinChina’,allyrecognizedgoalsofmedicinepoliciesaretomakemedicineavailable,affordable,safe,,goodmedicinepolici,,butsomemedicinesarestillinshortsupplyAsmanyas168,000medi,000medicinesinvariousspecificationsareproducedinChina,,somemedicineshavesucha,somedomesticmanufacturersareunwillingorunabletodevelopsomemedicinesforcuringrarediseases,,forthesetwocaseswheresomemedicinesareinshortsupply,theunavailabilityofsuchmediciceuticalcategoriesNationalessentialdrugsandCategoryAmedicineslistedinbasicmedicalins,CategoryBmedicinesonthelistareexpensive,,itisburdensomeforpatients,especiallyforpatientsincludedintheNewRural,,,,authoritieshaveissuedpoliciestostrengthenmedicineevaluationandapproval,,,,somemedicineswithoutpotencyorwhosepotencycannotbeprovedorevenareprovedharmful(likesometraditionalChinesemedicineinjections)arestilllargelyused;,prominentproblemsarestillpresentlikedrugoverdosingandoveruseThoughtheproblemofantibioticsabusehasbeenalleviatedbymeasureslikespecial-purposeoverhaul,administrativesupervision,andreimbursingmedicalexpensesbasedontheclassificationofdiseasesdeterminedbyhospitals,antibioticsandinje,problemslikeabuseoftraditiona,uticalindustry,Chinaisalargeproducerofpharmaceuticals,butnotastrongorinnovativeoneAtpresent,Chinahasover5,000Chi’smore,domesticdrugfirmsinvestlittle,%ofsalesrevenueinresearchanddevelopment(RD),wellbelowthelevelof15%to20%,97%oftheirproductsaregenericdrugs,andtheirso-called“newdrugs”justhavedifferentspecifications,dosages,,only1%ofChina’sdrugenterpriseshavryisdistorted,astheformerisstronglymotivatedtogetbenefitsfrommedicinesInthepharmaceuticalindustrychain,itisthemedicalservicesratherthanpatientsthatdecidewhatmedicinetouseinChina,“engines”,w“engine”idizehospitalsmakemedicinethemostimportantsourceofprofitformedicalinstitutions,whicharegenerallymotivatedtoprescribemoredrugs,“engine”isatthelevelofdoctors,whohavealownominalsalary,anddrugcompaniesarehighlycompetitives“engines”,bothmedicalservicesanddrugenterpriseshavestrongdbehaviorsTheunderlyingcauseistheimperfectcentralizedbiddings,publicbiddingonlydetermineswhocansell,,asbiddingandprocurementareseparated,thereareat,asdrugsareusedinhospitals,manyeffortsareneededtoencouragedoctorstoprescribemoremedicinesandmakemoresales....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

      Itisthecommongoalofmankindtohaveenoughto,PresidentXiJinpingstatesclearlythenationalfoodsecuritystrategyofrelyinglargelyonselfproduction,targetingdomesticmarket,ensuringproductivity,,PremierLiKeqiangstatesthatChinesehavealongheldbeliefof"foodbeingtheparamountnecessity".Chinaw,China,throughhardworkfordecades,hasmadere,Chinasgrainyieldincreasesby98%,outputofedibleoilbynearly6times,fruitpro,Chinasproductionofmeat,egganddairyproductsrisesby86%,46%,greatfoodva,,morethan95%ofal%%%,weneedtobeawareofthefactthatwestillhavemuchtodoinmaintainingfmeettheupdateddemandofurbanandruralresidentsforadequateandqualityfood.——Intermsofgrainquantity,,urbanization,,totalpopulationandresidentsin,peoplei,,anincreaseof40to140millioninChinastotalpopulationwilltranslateintoariseinfooddemandIfwecalculatetotalgraindemansurbanization,only36%ofthepopulationisurbanizedifo%ifallpermanentresidentsinurbanareasareincl%,residentsincomewillgrowwithChina,butbeforefoodconsumptionpatternisrestructured,theincreaseinincomewillresultinshrinkingconsumptioningrainbutrisingconsumptioninanimalproducts,cofKoreawherepeoplehavesimilardietwithChinese,onlywhenGDPpercapitareachesUSD20,,lgrowfrom50%to70%andw,Chinasconsumptionofanimalproductssuchasmeat,eggs,milk,,urbanandruralresidentshavehigherdemandforthequalityandsafetyofgrainandfoodproducts.——Withincomegrowthandimprovementoflivingconditions,,pe,becauseofbackwardproductionandmanagement,marketparticipantslackofcredibilityandpoormarketsupervision,,Chinaneedstode,over400,000foodenterprises,3millionfoecializedpersonnelandfacesdifficultyinmonitoringthewholeprocess,informationsymmetryishardtoachieveamongsupervisors,manufacturers,alization,theoccurrenceofanylocalpr,foodsafetyisoneofthehot,itisachallengingundertakingcallingforlongtermeffortstostrengthensupervisionandcontroloverthefoodsupplychainsoastoensurefoodsafety.澳门新濠贵宾会登录网址,,,thenumberofRTAsnotifiedtoGATT/WTOkeepsrapidgrowth,fromlessthan100in1991to625bytheendofFebruary1,2016(separatingnewly-signedagreementsontradeingoodsandservicesfromnewmembers).Atotalof124RTAswerenotifiedfrom1948to1994,,some20everyyearonaverage,,whichformed454freetradeareas(combiningnewly-signedagreementsontradeingoodsandserviceswithnewmembers),,90%arefreetradeareas(FTA)andtherestaretariffunions(TU).Aftertheinternationalfinancialcrisis,,2016,theEuropeanUnionnotified22RTAsinforce;Japannotifiedsix,signedTPPandcontinuednegotiationswiththeEuropeanUnion(EU),GulfCooperationCouncil,andSouthKorea;nineRTAsinforceinRussiawerenotifiedafter2012;fiveofthesevenRTAsinforceinIndiawerenotifiedafter2008;onlyfiveRTAsintheUnitedStateswerenotifiedsince2008,however,,the“spaghettibowleffect”,withEUcountrieslikeFrance,Germany,theNetherlandsandBritainoutnumberingothercountriesintermsofentityRTAs,followedbyemergingmarketssuchasSingapore,Turkey,,thereare1991and840newly-signedgoodsRTAsandservicesEIAs(economicintegrationagreements),,,thenumbersofnewly-signedgoodsRTAs,servicesEIAsandentityRTAsare234,,therepetitionratesofgoods,,,partlyreflectingRTAsoverlapwitheachother(seeTable1).Third,rationandinternationaleconomiccooperation,promotingFTAsnewlysignedornegotiatedlargerinscale,scopeandbetterinquality,aswellascoveringalargenumberofcountries,economicoutput,tradevolumeandpopulation(seeTable2).Withincreasingmembers,theirimbalanceddevelopment,anddifferencesinculture,religionandvalues,,thereisnoneedformemberstobethesameindegreeofopening-uportransitionperiod,showi,thelong-termgoalofadvancingregionalcooperationmechanismistodevelopglobalrules,a,,%,whiletheproportionhasbeensome16%,among13RTAs,twoareFTAs,eightareFTAEIAs,andthreeareCUEIAs(seeFigure1).Moreover,,TPPinvolvesthenewroundofeconomicandtraderuleslikecompetitionneutral,laborandenvironmentalstandards;whileTTIPinvolv,2015,intermsoftheopeninglevel,theproportionoftheliberalizationoftradeingoodsofthetwocountriesexceeds90%ofthetaxitemsand85%,tradeinservices,tradeandinvestment,aswellaseconomicandtradeissuesinthe21stcentury,suchaselectroniccommerce,competitionpolicy,governmentprocurement,“bordermeasures”ofmarketaccess(includingtariffandnon-tariffbarriersandinvestmentaccess),’sRegionalCooperationSinceearly1980s,Chinabegantopromotesomebilateralandregionalcooperationmechanisms,soastocreateafavorableexte,acompletesystemhasbeencreated,includingnotonlypracticalbilateralinvestmenttreatiesandfreetradeagreements,butalsoallsortsofpartnerships;notonlyShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)withclearscope,buttheBeltandRoadInitiative(BRInitiative)advocatingopenregionalism;notonlymultilateraldevelopmentalfinancialinstitutionsliketheAsianInfrastructureInvestmentBank(AIIB)andBRICSDevelopmentBank,,exertingimpactsonallsidesofChina’,nonetheless,,,Chinahassigned14FTAs,,suchFTAsconcentrateincostalcountriesandregions,,freetradearrangementswithmajoreconomiesbesidesASEANareyettobeseen(seeFigure2)....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

      ByGuShuzhong,,2018Wateristhesourceoflife,theessentialfactorofproduction,thefoundationofecology,,wat,ortheabilityithasto,acquire,inatimely,sustainable,reliableandeconomicallyreasonablemanner,waterresourcesandwaterresourceproductsasneededofacceptablequalityandquantity,maintainagoodecologicalenvironment,,Chinaisconfrontedwithaverycomplexwatersecuritysituation,whichisexacerbatedbyamultitudeofproblemslikewaterresourceshortage,waterpollution,aquaticdamage,,watersecurityinChinaisfacingmanynewsituations,,andthecountry’sdrivetoseeknewgrowthenergyandnew-typeurbanizationandindustrialization,eradicatepoverty,comprehensivelybuildamoderatelyprosperoussociety,advanceecologicalandgreendevelopment,copewithclimatechangeandprotectbiodiversity,,itisnecessarytohaveasystematicevaluationandunderstandingofwatersecuritysituationsinChinaandidentifymainproblemsinthisrespectinthehopeofprovidingsomeinsightsneededforthecountry’sdecision-makingconcerningnationalsecurity,isstudyadoptedtheanalytichierarchyprocess(AHP),indicatorsatthelevelofcriteriafortheevaluationofwatersecurityinChinawerecreatedfromthefollowingfiveaspects:a)Adequacyinquantity,usedtomeasureifthequantityofwaterresourcesinaregioncansatisfyhumanneedsofeconomicactivity(industrial,agricultural,etc.)andeverydaylife;b)waterqualitycompliance,usedtomeasureifthequalityofwatercomplieswithwaterqualityrequirementsfortheuseofwaterforliving,productiveandecologicalpurposes;c)sustainability,usedtomeasureifwaterresourcescanguaranteetheirownquantity,humanneedsfordevelopmentandutilization,andneedsofecologicalfunctions;d)costaffordability,usedtomeasuretheabilityofwateruserstopayforwatertheyuse,andofthesocietytoaffordwatersupplycosts;ande)floodprotection,usedtomeasureth,andspecificindicatorsofeachsub-criterionwerehand-pickedbasedoncorrelationsbetweenindicatorsandontheprinciplesecurityinChina(seeTable1).,andthenanon-parametrictestmethodinvolvingmultiplematchedsamples-morespecifically,Kendall’,suggestinggoodconsistencyoftheresults;theresultsalsopassedthesignifieevaluationofwatersecurityinChina,asystematicevaluationofwatersecuritysituationsinChinawastheconductedinthreedimensions,,provinces,tyears,aswellasdatafromwat,andonthisbasis,indicatordatawereprocessedandtheindicatorsscoredandweighted,finallyarrivingatscoresofthecrit:ascoreof90orhighersignifies“verygood”,“good”,“moderate”,“acceptable”,andascorebelow60denotes“unacceptable”.Thestateofwat(Table2),signifyinga“good”,costaffordabilityscoredthehighest,,signifyinga“verygood”ranking;,signifyinga“good”ranking;waterqualitycomplianceandfloodprotectionscoredlower,(lowest),therefore,themostpromine,lowerscoresoccurredmainlytothefollowingindicators:LengthinpercentagetermsofriverswithClassItoIIIwaterquality,numberinpercentagetermsoflakeswithClassItoIIIwaterquality,rateofwaterflowintothesea(orabroad),averageratiooflossesfromfloodingtoGDPin3years,averagepercentageoffloodedcitiesin3years()Floodcontrolability,’dhigherthanthenorthernparts,withthelowestscoresoccurringtosuchareasintheHaiandYellowRiverbasinsasHebei,BeijingandTianjin(seethesectionbelowfordetails).oblemswithwatersecurityinChinabasedontheforgoingevaluatioer,andtheproblemofexcessivewaterresourcedevelopmentisprominentTheadequacyinquantityandthesustainabilityofwaterresourcesinChinascoredrelativelyhigh:sofaraswatersupplyanddemandisconcerned,theavailablequantityatpresentofwaterresourcesinChinaisgreaterthanthatofdemandforwaterandcaninthegeneralsensesatisfywaterdemandforlivingandproductivepurposes;thedegreeofdevelopmentandutilizationofsurfaceandundergroundwaterresourcesislessthan20%,rresourcesinthenorthernChinesebasinsoftheYellow,HuaiandHaiRivers;particularlyinBeijing,Tianjin,HebeiandotherplacesontheNorthChinaPlainaswellasinHenanandShandongintheHuaiRiverbasin,where,duetodensepopulationsanddevelopedindustrialandagriculturaleconomiesthere,,industrialandagriculturalwaterdemandhasbeensatisfiedwithcross-regionalwatertransferprojectsbeinggraduallycompletedandurbanandruralwatersupplyinfrastructureimproved,thepressurefromthecontradictionbetweensupplyanddemandofwaterresources,againstabackdropofrapidindustrializationandurbanization,,thenorthandnorthwestpartsofthecountryfaceconsiderablewaterresourcepressureforhigherdegreesofwaionofBeijing,TianjinandHebei,ataratenearorabove100%,whichisthecountry’,thisregionhasaremarkabledeclineintheaggregatequantityofwaterresourcesandforeignwaterresources,suggestingariskthatwaterresourcesareinthemselvesunsustainable....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.澳门会手机app下载地址

      澳门会手机app下载地址ByZhouQunli,ChengYu,,2017Xinjiang,withvastlandandrichsunshineandheatresources,producesalargevarietyoftastyforestry,theforestryandfruitindustryhasbeendevelopingrapidlyinXinjiang,withfruittreescovering20millionmuoflandin2013[],,sincefacilitiesforstorage,dryingandotherpreliminaryprocessingactivitieswerelargelyoutdated,fruitsandvegetables,onceharvested,couldhardlybekeptfresh[],transportationcostswerehigh,,,TheMinistryofAgricultureandtheMinistryofFinanceincludedXinjianginthesubsidyprogramforpreliminaryprocessingofagriculturalproductsattheplaceoforigin(hereinafterreferredtoas“theProgram”)g,wewenttoUrumqitohavemeetingswiththedepartmentsofagricultureandfinance,andtheagriculturalproductprocessingbureauoftheautonomousregionandmadefiledtripstoLuntaiCountyandBohuCountyofBayingolinAutonomousPrefecture,,webelievethattheProgramtackledthebottleneckthatpreventedlocalfarmers’incomefromgrowing,gavebetterplaytotheadvantagesoftheforestryandfruitindustryinXinjiang,,n2012,XinjianghasinvestedatotalofRMB632millionintheProgram,building5,950dryinghouses,and1,,3,377dryinghouseswerebuilttogetherwith1,(SeeTable1).Thesefacilitieswereallputintouseandbroughtbenefitinthesameyeartheywerebuilt,contributinggreatlytotheincreaseoftheincomeoflocalfarmersaationandleadershipgroupwasestablishforthePrograminXinjiang,headedbyamemberandsecretarygeneralofthestandingcommitteeoftheCPCXinjiangCommitteeandparticipatedbyofficialsfrom27institutionsincludingtheDepartmentofFinance,DepartmentofForestry,OfficeofPovertyAlleviation,DepartmentofAgriculture,AgriculturalMachineryBureau,AgriculturalProductProcessingBureau,OfficeofFinance,,allrelevantinstitutionscoordinatedcloselyandrelevantauthoritopleadersofprefectureswhereprogressoftheProgramwasslow,askingthemforexplanation,inspection,’burdensIn2015,atotalinvestmentofRMB380millionwasmadeunderthePrograminsouthernXinjiang,withonly90million,%,000andRMB10,000,%,000withRMB60,000,or40%,fromfarmers(SeeTable2).InsouthernXinjiang,fundswereraisedfromvarioAcademyofAgriculturalSciencesdevelopedtheImplementationPlanfortheHotWindDryingandColdStorageofFruitsandVegetablesandallprefecturesandcountiesformulateddetailedim,uptoRMB5millionwasearmarkedforthetrainingunderthisprogramtoensurethat6,240peopleweretrained,including22,020coldstorageworkers,338dryinghousemanagers,10,131dryinghouseworkers,151,965fruitandvegetablepickers,aswellas54,032workersforthesortingand6,,theProgramhascovered84outof88countiesinXinjiangandinalloftheseplaces,aservicesystemhasbeenestablishedpreliminarilyforthedryingandcoldstorageoffruitsandvegetablestoreducepost-harvestloss,extendtheagriculturalindustrychain,andincreasefarmers’,theProgramwashonoredasgoodinitiativethas,theProgramraisedthequalityandpriceofagriculturalproductsandsignificantlyincreasedfarmers’,,coldstoragehelpedreducethepost-harvestlossofgrapesby10%.Foranother,,apricotsweredriedinthesunwhichtookalongtimeandhamperedsafetyandhygiene,,productqualityimprovedandthepricerosebyover50%(SeeTable3).Upto50%ofallapricotsdriedinthedryinghouseswereclass-1productswhilethisratewasonly30%,productsbecameavailable,forexample,,,TawenjuekenTown,BohuCounty,previously,vegetableslastnomorethantwomonthsintraditionalcellarsandanannualprofittotaledRMB40,000-50,000;aftercoldstoragewasadopted,theannualprofitgrewtooverRMB200,,000tothecooperative,he/shewillreceiveadividendofuptoRMB200incashafterayear....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

      ByZhuoXian,Departme,2015Sincetheinternationalfinancialcrisisin2008,China’seconomyiscurrentlyfacingtheseverestdownwardpre%,,theShanghaicompositeindexwas4441points,oharmtotherealeconomyWhatimpactsdovariousbubbleshaveoninnovationandeconomictransitionaftertheyburstWhatcanbedonetopreventmoderateeconomicbubblesfromdevelopingintobubbleeconomywhereeconomictransitionstallsThispaperproposescountermeasuresagainstbubbleeconomybasedontheanalyticalsthestatewhereanasset,suchasstockandrealestate,,Kindlebergerdescribestheword“bubble”asfollows.“Abubblemaybedefinedlooselyasasharpriseinthepriceofanassetorarangeofassetsinacontinuousprocess,withtheinitialrisegeneratingexpectationsoffurtherrisesandattractingnewbuyers--generallyspeculatorsinterestedinprofitsfromtradingintheassetratherthanitsuseorearningscapacity.”Proponentsoftheefficientmarkethypothesis(EMH)insicvaluesb,cognitivelimitationswillleadtooveroptimism,overconfidenceandthesheep-and-flockeffectinthemarket,,therailwaycrazeintheUnitedKingdomandthecanalcrazeintheUnitedStatesintheearlystageofindustrializationarebu,theeconomic,thegrowthrateofpercapitaGDPstartedtodropfrom10%,whiletheprice-earningsratio(orP/Eratio)didnotstoprisinguntilnegativegrowthappearedasaresultoftheAsianfinancialcrisisin1998(seeFigure1).StocksinChina’,theP/Era,morethanhalfofthestocksofA-sharesaretradedatover70timesearnings(HaJiming,2015).EvenasChina’seconomicgrowthslowsdown,somestockshavethesameP//ERatioinSouthKoreaSource:Wind,“mediumandlong-termdevelopment”databaseofDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil(DRC).Bubblesshowupduringtheeconomictraneensupplyanddemandarises,whichhinderstheimpr,,buthighearningsinthehigh-growth,forexample,amongthe405trillionJapaneseYenfinancedbyJapanesecompanies,64%wasinvestedinfinancialassetsinsteadofequipment(YukioNoguchi,2004).Consideringmoreuncertaintieswillcomefrominvestmentduringthetransition,financialsectorsdefinecollateral,suchasstocks,bonds,realestate,andland,,whichcreatesthe“acceleratoreffect”,governmentstillregardshighgrowthasthenormandadoptslo,,,late-developingeconomieshavealongereconomicboom,moreroomforeconomicslowdown,andpossibi,late-developingeconomies,especiallythoseineastAsia,nddemand.“Quantitybubbles”,likeexcessiveconstructionininfrastructure,willprobablyemergebefore“pricebubbles”.Third,topushforwardthetransition,late-developingeconomiestendtoimplementfinancialreforms,,risingfinancingrate,causedbyinterestrateliberalization,willincreasethecostofcapitaloftheenterprisesinrealeconomy,lowerthemarginalrevenueofcapitalinthetraditionalindustries,weakenentrepreneurs’enthusiasmininvestinginrealeconomy,,,newindustriesandnewbusinessmodels,andhighpricesreflectpotentialhighearnings,,andhighpricesarecausedbyspeculation,,innovationmust,likesteamengines,electricaltechnologies,andcomputers,beabletobeappliedintoavarifeasibilitybutals,Turing,funded100,000poundsbytheBritishgovernment,,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.,2017AsstructuraltransformationdeepensinChina,economicactivitiesclearlytendtodifferentiateamongdifferentmentan,citysystems,spatialdistributionofdemandforpublicresources,,ibutionoftheChinesepopulationover2010-2015withdataobtainedinthe20151%populationsamplesurveycovering30provinces,autonomousregionsandmunicipalities[]omparedwiththepreviousstageofdevelopment,thecurrentstageinChinaseesthespatialpopulationdistributioninthecountrychangeincloseconnectionwiththein-depthadjustmenttothedivisionoflaborintheglobaleconomyandthedif,asChinahasenteredthemiddletolatestageofindustrialization,theurbanizationprocesshasgraduallysloweddownandthedirectionofpopulationflow,aswellastheoverallpopulationdistribution,:tialDistributionismoreBalancedAmongalllargeregionsinChina,centralChinaandthesouthwestsawsignificantpopulationgrowthduring2010-2015,whilethenortheastwitnessedanetdecreaseofnearly300,,changesweremuchmilderduring2010-2015thanduring2005-2010(SeeFigure1).However,,hendeclined,,theshareofthenorthwestkeptds,thedirectionoftheflowaswellastheresultedspatialpopulationdistribu,,theBeijing-Tianjin-Hebeiregionsawthesharpestgrowthinitspopulationshareduring2010-2015,eseeninsomeCitiesAsforthechangesinpermanentpopulationofcitiesindifferentregions[],during2010-2015,thetrenddifferedgreatlyamongthe287citiesofChinaaboveprefecturelevel[].Upto240ofthemsawpopulationgrowthwiththesharpestincreaseoccurringinthefourmunicipalitiesofBeijing,Tianjin,Shanghai,andChongqing,%,forexample,eachwelcomedover800,000newresidents;andChangshaandGuiyanghavealsoseenagrowthofover300,,duringthesameperiod,therewerealsonetdeclines,,22outof34citiesaboveprefecturelevelinthenortheast,includingprovincialcapitalssuchasShenyang,Harbin,andChangchun,,Qinghai,sbutalsobetwee,largercitieswithsteadyeconomicgrowthseefasterpopulationgrowth,whilecitieswithwildeconomicfluctuations,arelativelysimpleindustrialstructure,androvinceGrowstoaLargeExtentasPopulationConcentratesmoreinRegionalCentralCitiesWhilepopulationdistributionismorebalancedamonglargerregionsofthecountry,theconcentrationleveltendtoincreasewithineachprovince,,leadingcitiesinallprovincesbutHeilongjiangachievedgreaterleadingedgesandtwinleadingcitieswereformedinAnhui,Henan,Guangdong,Liaoning,,allbutthoseofHeilongjiang,Jilin,Liaoning,andHebei,werethetopcitiesoftheirrespectiveprovinces,erentprovinces,whichisindicatedbytheshareofthetopthreecitiesinthetotalpopulationoftheprovince,CR3,,inprovincewherethepressureforaneconomicslowdownisheavierandtheoveralldevelopmentlevelislower,,in2015,theconcentrationlevelofexceeded50%inNingxia,Heilongjiang,,thepopulationconcentrationlev,inGuangdongandJiangsuinthesameyear,theconcentrationratiowasrespectively22%and24%.theCitySystemhaschangedAsshowninFigure2,during2010-2015,thepopulat,megacitiesseelargepopulationgrowthwiththeshareofcitieswith6millionpeopleormorerisingbyab,,thepopulationshareofcitieswithfewerthan3millionpeopledecreasnsifiesthegapincityscalewidens,andthestructureoftheoverallcitysystemtendstofocusmoreonlargecities....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.澳门会手机app下载地址

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      ,rwastedUrbanizationhasbeena,%%in2015andruralpopulationf,therisinglevelofurbanizationanddecliningruralpopulationhelptoreducelanduseforresidentialpurposebecause,however,isthatdespitethesharpdecreaseinruralpopulationlanduseforconstructionpu(2014-2020),duringtheperiod2000-2011,ruralpopulationdecreasedby133millionwhiletheareaofland,mainlyhomesteads1,,oneoftheimportantcausesof(MLR)ofChina,theareaoflandleftunusedinruralsettlementsisaround30millionmu,equivalenttoone-fourthoftheareaoflandusedbycities,andover90millionmuoflandisusedinefficiently,esearch,CAS,about,usedinefficientlyandevenwast,homestead-userightscanonlybetransferredwithinruraleconomiccollectivesandthereisnocompensationmec,suchasfarmerswithoutaffiliationtothecollectives,urbanresidents,enterprises,andthegovernment,cannotobtainhomestead-userightsthrough,newruralhouseholdsneedmorehomesteadswhilefarmersworkingincitiescannottransfertheirhomestead-userights,whichisboundtocausebothincreasei’residentialpropertyrightsunrecognizedandawideurban-ruralgapinhousingvaluecausedbyinstitutionaldifferencesandunequalright,housinginc,buildingahousecoststhemajorityofahousehold’,uctionpurposeinChongqing,Chengdu,,eachmuoflandreclaimedfromhomesteadusersforconstructionpurposeistradedatapriceofatleastRMB100,,000,itmeansthat,,China’dered,thepotentialvalueofruralhousingacrossthecountryisaboveRMB35trillion,whichmeansmorethanRMB135,,,anincreasingnumberoffarmershavelefttheirvillages,doingbusiness,,,,illegaltradingofruralhousingisnothingnewbutpricesaremuchlowerthantherealworthofthetradedhousingbecause,homestead-userightsarenotallowedtobetraded,farmers’propertyrightsincludinghouseownershipandhomestead-userightarenotrecognized,andfarmersdonothavetherighttoturntheirhousingintoasour,andthecompleteseparatio,urbanresidentlivedi,,however,mitteethat“farmersshouldbegrantedmorepropertyrights”.ItisurgentforChinatomakeitarealityassoonaspossiblethroughreform....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.澳门会手机app下载地址,2017Threeunexpectedincidentshavehappen,,manybelievedtheglobaleconomywouldb,inthewakeoftheturmoilintheUS,adebtc,,therehavebeenanunexpectednum,globalizationhasstronglydrivenglobaleconomicdevelopment,,manyc,theimbalancesbetweencountriesandbetweendifferentgroupswithinthesamecountrythathadpreviouslybeen,thepoliti,peoplearelookingtopoliticians,especiallyindevelopedcountries,tomakerational,correct,theBrexit,theconstitutionalreferenduminItaly,theresultsoftheUSpresidentialelection,andthecurrentsituat,moreandmoresuchoriginallyhighlyimprobable“blackswans”,thingsthatwereonceblackswansmaybecomeanormof“grayrhinos”(suchasgeopoliticalconflicts).Facedwiththechallengesbroughtonbyuncertainty,shouldwesitbyidlytojustwatchwhathappens,orshouldwetaketheinitiativetostrategizeandact,shoulderingourrightfulresponsibilitytobreakthroughthisdestructivesiegeandworktowardan,,peoplecanlowertheprobabilityoftheoccurrenceofundesirableincidentsandincreasethatofdesirableonesbyelduringthemid-1990s,wedidnotadvocatetheidea,weproposedathree-yearplanandtheformulationofTheDecisionoftheCentralCommitteeoftheCommunistPartyofChinaonMajorIssuesConcerning,,“Preparednessensuressuccess;unpreparednessleadstofailure.”Thereisalwaysadegreeofuncertaintywitheconomicandsocialdevelopment,,thelongandatedstructuralimbalancesthatdevelopmentcurrentlyfaceswithinthenewpoliticalcircumstancesandenvironment,,thecontinualdecreaseinthecostsofcommunicationandtransportation,thesteadyexpansionofindustrialsegmentationworldwide,theextensivedevelopmentsininternationaltradeandinvestment,thedailyincreaseinthetrans-borderflowofindustrialelements(suchasresources,capital,labor,andinformation),andtheimmensedeepeningofeconomicandsocialtiesbetweennations,thefatesofpeopleineveryco,theeffectsofstrategicchoicesmadebyeachcountry,whetherbeneficialorharmful,,asanationplansitsfuturedevelopment(especiallyfornationsthatalreadyhavestronginfluenceintheworld),itshouldproperlyhandlethreethings:therelationshipbetweenitsowndevelopmentandthatofothercountries,therelationshipbetweenitsowndevelopmentandtheprosperityofitsownpeople,,someofthegover,:alargeamountofcapitalflowedintoemergingeconomies,causingthestockandrealest,somelargercountrieshavebeguntograduallyeaseoffo,othercountries,’sglobalizedworldeconomy,theeconomiesofdevelopedanddevelopingnationsarebynomeansuntied:toahighdegree,,foreveryonepercentagepointdropintheeconomicgrowthofdevelopingnations,...Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

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